Face Transplantation

July 4, 2018

In recent years transplantation has become a feasible way to treat some facial disfigurement. The process is not without its challenges – both scientific and ethical. This video on face transplantation was made by second year students as an assessed piece of coursework at the University of Leicester, UK.


Organ trading

May 25, 2016

This video was produced by students at the University of Leicester. The team made effective use of a fictional case study to investigate some of the ethical issues associated with organ trading.


Darwin’s Dangerous Idea – Born Equal? (BBC2)

March 25, 2009
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This episode of Darwin's Dangerous Idea can be viewed online via the BBC iPlayer until April7 2009.

In the three-part series, Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, broadcast on BBC2 to mark the 200th anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin and the 150th anniversary of the publication of On the Origin of Species, broadcaster Andrew Marr explores the impact of the theory of evolution by natural selection on science, politics and society.

While the first and third episodes, respectively entitled Body and Soul and Life and Death, explore the historical spread of Darwin’s theory and the way it can be employed within conservation and ecology, the second episode, Born Equal?, includes a short section (between 00:45:12 and 00:56:20) that could be used in bioethics teaching.

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Holby City – “If you can’t…look after yourself, then why should we?”

January 21, 2009
Watch this episode via the BBC iPlayer (available until January 27th 2009)

Watch this episode via the BBC iPlayer (available until January 27th 2009)

The issue of resource allocation in the NHS has cropped up several times in recent programmes (see, for example, Dom’s on the Case regarding the “postcode lottery”. The present post examines the ethical issues implicit in a different aspect of resource allocation in healthcare: the potential for conflict between traditional medical ethics and core NHS values and increasingly prominent views of the individual as both responsible and accountable for their own health status. This tension came to the fore in Just, a recent episode of the BBC drama Holby City (first broadcast on BBC1 at 8.00pm on 20th January 2009), and is captured nicely in one particular quote from the programme in which surgeon Ric Griffin challenges his patient, an obese smoker, “if you can’t be bothered to look after yourself, then why should we?” (00:38:07)

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Could human reproductive cloning be a “Godsend”?

November 24, 2008

The ficticious "Godsend Institute", from which the film takes its name

The fictitious "Godsend Institute", from which the film takes its name

(Warning: contains plot spoilers!) The film Godsend stars Robert De Niro as a maverick fertility expert who has perfected a technique for human reproductive cloning. Following the death of their son Adam, on the day after his eighth birthday, Dr Richard Wells (De Niro) offers his services to the Duncan family telling them “you can have him back” (00:11:27). Although Godsend’s convoluted plot is entertaining, it must be noted that the science is both inaccurate and misleading. Nevertheless, there are a number of clips that highlight some of the bioethical issues, not only around human reproductive cloning, but also in terms of the links between what is legal, what is moral, and what science can do.

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More tricky decisions – Inside the ethics committee

August 12, 2008
Visit the Inside the Ethics Committee homepage at BBC Radio 4

Visit the Inside the Ethics Committee homepage at BBC Radio 4

The fourth series of BBC Radio 4’s bioethics programme Inside the Ethics Committee began on August 6 2008, and discussed some of the ethical issues involved in the creation of ‘saviour siblings’ (first broadcast on BBC Radio 4, at 20.00, August 6 2008 and repeated on August 9 2008, at 22.15). Vivienne Parry and a panel of experts discuss the ethical issues around real-life medical cases, on this occasion the dilemma involves a young child, Catherine, and her medical treatment. Previous BioethicsBytes posts have noted the utility of this series (see the post Making tricky decisions – Inside the ethics committee), and this episode is no different.

Shortly after she was born Catherine was diagnosed with Diamond Blackfan Anaemia (DBA). DBA is a rare blood disorder caused by a genetic mutation. In general, its treatment is “gruelling” (00:02:27) and the prognosis is poor. As in several previous cases (notably, the Whitaker, Fletcher and Mariethoz families), Catherine’s parents were offered the option of using preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for tissue typing alone in order to create a ‘saviour sibling’ whose umbilical cord blood could be used to treat Catherine’s DBA.

Many of the ethical issues involved in this choice have been dealt with in past BioethicsBytes posts (see The Future of Our Families? and the extended commentary that accompanies that post), however this edition of Inside the Ethics Committee brings consideration of these issues up to date. Though the majority of the ethical issues raised are covered in our existing posts, some of the additional details noted here about DBA and the testing procedure introduce new complications into the ethical debate.

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Genetic testing – Child of our time

January 31, 2008

In 2000, the BBC launched Child of our time, an ambitious experiment to record the lives of twenty-five children over twenty years. The aim was to establish how our genes and the environment combine to make us who we are and shape our personality. Sir Robert Winston (IVF – A child against all odds) the fertility expert and TV personality presents the programmes as they follow a series of newborns from before birth through to adulthood.

BBC Child of our time Homepage

 
BBC ‘Child of our time’ Homepage  

In this post we focus on two segments for the first series of Child of our time.  These are: Series 1 The journey begins (00:22:00 – 00:28:40) and  Series 1 – Birthdays (00:23:00 – 00:24:26).  Both episodes are available online, see bottom of this post for details about how to access them.

This bioethical discussion, focuses on one set of parents, Neil and Gillian Roberts, who decide to be genetically tested for the Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) gene. It has been suggested that certain variants of this gene help increase stamina and efficient use of oxygen, and thus have been linked to success in sporting activities The father, a keen athlete and sportsman, suggests that both he and the future mother be tested for this variant to establish whether their new born might subsequently have a chance of inheriting it. The result (which appears in the ‘Birthdays’ episode) is negative and neither parent has this particular variant. Read the rest of this entry »


A suitable donor? – Hollyoaks

January 23, 2008

I have to say from the outset that I am not usually a Hollyoaks fan and, as this post will show, I’m way off the pace as far as who’s who. However, turning on slightly early for the Channel 4 news on Tuesday 22nd January 2008 I happened to catch the end of that day’s episode of the Chester-based soap opera (TRILT code 007CA973) and was intrigued.  The storyline involved Charlie, a baby recently diagnosed with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) and in need of a bone marrow transplant. The first clip I caught was the doctor informing Charlie’s ‘dad’ Jake Dean that a blood test revealed he was not a suitable donor for the baby – on the grounds that he was not, in fact, the boy’s biological father.

hollyoaks1.jpg

Frankie, Nancy and Jake

Recognising the potential benefit of this clip for teaching about transplantation and/or genetic testing, I decided I ought to check my facts.  This, it turned out, is more complicated than I had anticipated. So (deep breath) the woman standing anxiously by the baby’s bedside is not Charlie’s mum, she is Nancy, Charlie’s aunt (no pun intended). Charlie’s mum Becca is dead, stabbed in prison by her cellmate.  She was in prison having been found guilty of engaging in a sexual relationship with Justin, who was underage at the time. Despite the relationship being consensual, Justin made false claims of coercion based on his anger at being dumped by Becca. Justin is now with Katy Fox, Jake and Nancy are in a relationship of their own (keep up!).  Knowing about Becca’s infidelity with Justin, Jake had ordered a paternity test in January 2007, but decided not to open it, choosing instead to remain in ignorance and bring up Charlie assuming that he was the biological father.  This latest turn in the story shows that he is not. Read the rest of this entry »


MMR: our children, our choice? – Panorama

January 23, 2008

In 2002, the BBC’s Panorama series included an edition entitled MMR: Every Parent’s Choice which investigated the origins of the controversy over measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination in the UK. In particular, the programme focussed on the role of Dr Andrew Wakefield and his, now refuted, claims concerning the link between the use of ‘triple-jab’ MMR vaccine and childhood autism and bowel disease. Although the public controversy surrounding this vaccination has now largely been settled, MMR uptake still remains below the level required to ensure population (or ‘herd’) immunity (see MMR uptake still short of target, BBC News, September 28th 2007 or watch video Warning over low MMR uptake, BBC News). The 2006-07 NHS immunisation statistics in England for example report it to be 85% by the age of two (NHS Immunisation Statistics, England, 2006-07), a figure which highlights that even today, 10 years after the controversy first ignited, immunisation rates have not yet returned to their previous levels of over 90% (NHS Immunisation Statistics, England, 1997-8).

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MMR controversy makes the Telegraph headlines on February 27th 1998 (from Panorama, BBC2, February 3rd 2002, 22.15)

The MMR controversy also remains a particularly rich source of material for discussing the ethical issues implicit in mass vaccination programmes. The MMR: Every Parent’s Choice episode of Panorama is a good example of this as it explicitly explores key issues, including:

  • the tension between the rights of individual parents to choose whether or not to have their children vaccinated and the aims and objectives of state endorsed vaccination policy
  • the factors influencing parents decision-making about vaccination, and variable influence of health professionals, the media, and science in shaping these
  • the proper role for doctors as both scientific and social actors

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Exploiting Genetic Knowledge – Visions of the Future (2)

January 11, 2008

The Biotech Revolution, the second episode of the BBC4 Visions of the Future series, continues to describe ways in which humanity is making a “historic transition from the age of scientific discovery to the age of scientific mastery”. Presenter Michio Kaku suggests that unlocking the basic code of life will allow us to “predetermine the destiny of life itself” and to manipulate it at the most fundamental level (Start-00:02:00).

The programme begins with Kaku having his “medical future rather than history” diagnosed via a series of genetic tests for complex diseases such as heart disease, diabetes and Alzheimer’s. He describes this as an “owner’s manual” which will enable him to have greater control of his health, and to allow others to perhaps prolong their life by decades (00:02:20-00:06:20 and 00:20:05-00:23: 20). As a scientist, he is eager to discover what secrets his genome may contain however, as a person, he says “wait a minute, this could be a Pandora’s Box… I’m looking at a side of me I have never seen before, a side that has potential medical problems lurking there”.

Some of the issues raised here mirror those found in the ITV1 broadcast The Killer in Me, which illustrated particularly well the anguish associated with having such tests and the way actions could be taken in light of the results. In this programme, in contrast, there is greater emphasis placed on the potential impact on relatives and wider society that may result from taking the tests. “We really want to respect your privacy and the privacy of your relatives” the physician emphasises to Kaku.  Much of the future of this testing, if not the present, relies upon “the last great discovery of the 21st century, the Human Genome Project”.  Kaku believes that this event holds such significance that we will look at the history of medicine in two eras, “before genome and after genome”. “Having unravelled the fundamental code of our biology the stage is set for us to manipulate it” he adds (00:06:25-00:09:20). Read the rest of this entry »